There are "instructions for the impatient": a minimal set of installation instructions, assuming everything works. For more details and explanations, see Jason Swails' wiki.
All of Amber will compile and run on Ubuntu Linux platforms. For any recent version (say 12.04 or later), the following command should get you the needed optional packages:
sudo apt-get install csh flex patch gfortran g++ xorg-dev python-tk
(note that the penultimate library is "zlib-one-g", not "zlib-el-g")
If you want parallel, you can probably use the apt-get versions of MPI:
sudo apt-get install openmpi-bin
Some users might prefer mpich to openmpi. In that case:
sudo apt-get mpich2 libmpich2-dev
If you have trouble with these, go to $AMBERHOME/AmberTools/src, and execute either ./configure_openmpi or ./configure_mpich2.
Instructions are generally the same as above, except that yum is used as a package manager. The following command should get you the needed libraries:
sudo yum install gcc flex tcsh zlib-devel bzip2-devel libXt-devel libXext-devel libXdmcp-devel
Instructions are generally the same as above, except that zypper is used as a package manager. The following command should get you the needed libraries:
sudo zypper install gcc gcc-c++ gcc-fortran libtool xorg-x11-devel xorg-x11-libXt-devel libbz2-devel patch python-tk